[PODCAST] Idolatry: When God Gives Us Up

In this episode, I discuss the idea of God giving sinners up to their sin and how that relates to idolatry. Does God purposefully cause us to sin? Do we have a role to play in God giving us up to sin? Does God give up on us when we constantly sin? Is there a particular context in which God decides to give us up to our vile passions, lusts, and debased mind? This discussion is based on Romans 1:18-32.

The episode is available at the following links:

Anchor – Idolatry: When God Gives Us Up
Google Play – Idolatry: When God Gives Us Up
Apple Podcasts – Idolatry: When God Gives Us Up

Please feel free to leave comments, feedback, and suggestions for future episodes.

I hope you enjoy!

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Judge Righteously and Love Mercy

As children of God and followers of Christ, our goal is to be more like the Father and his Son. We should desire to be transformed into the image of Christ (Rom. 8:29) and to be holy like God (1 Pet. 1:15). In Romans 2, Paul speaks of God as a judge with two important attributes that govern how he deals with humankind—he is both righteous and merciful. If we are to be more like God when we deal with people, it is important that we learn how to judge righteously and to be merciful.

Judging Righteously

We must aspire to have the ability to discern between right and wrong and to guide those who are not inline with God’s moral standard. However, we need to be careful when we do this, because when we judge others, we could condemn ourselves. After exposing the sins of the Gentiles in Romans 1, Paul accuses the Jews of practicing the same sins. He says in verse 1, “Therefore you are inexcusable, O man, whoever you are who judge, for in whatever you judge another you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things” (Rom. 2:1 NKJV). The Jews condemned the Gentiles for practicing sin, yet they indulged in the same behavior. Sin is sin in God’s sight, and he does not excuse anyone’s transgressions based on any distinguishing factors, such as heritage. He simply “renders to each one according to his deeds” (Rom. 2:6; 1 Pet. 1:17). The Jews were just as guilty as the Gentiles, and therefore when they judged the Gentiles for their sinfulness, they condemned themselves in their hypocrisy.

Jesus taught on this principle in his sermon on the mount. He said, “judge not, that you be not judged” (Matt. 7:1). The measure that we use to judge someone will be the same measure that is used on us. If we judge others according to their sins while practicing the same, we are considered hypocrites. We must remove the sin from our lives before we attempt to correct the behavior of others (Matt. 7:2–5).

God does expect us to judge. He does not want us to become desensitized to sin to where we do not even notice it in our own lives. We should not call evil good, and good evil (Isa. 5:20). However, we must judge with righteous judgment (John 7:24). When the people sought to kill Jesus because he had healed a man on the Sabbath, he accused them of being hypocrites. They wanted to condemn him, but yet they had no problem circumcising on the Sabbath. They showed partiality in their judgment, and they considered the good work of Jesus Christ an evil thing (cf. Matt. 12:12). We must be careful not to oppose what is good and to support what is wrong.

23It is not good to show partiality in judgment. 24 He who says to the wicked, “You are righteous,” Him the people will curse; Nations will abhor him. 25 But those who rebuke the wicked will have delight, and a good blessing will come upon them (Prov. 24:23–24 NKJV).

When we judge others without recognizing our own faults, we excuse ourselves, and thus show partiality. The same is also true when, in the appropriate circumstances, we fail to point out wrong behavior. If we strive to be more like Christ, we must learn to discern between good and bad, know when to point out what is wrong, and be able to recognize our own errors.

Loving Mercy

The other trait seen in God is mercifulness. Although God is impartial in his judgment, he also delights in mercy and withholds punishment when we indeed deserve it (Micah 7:18). He is forbearing and longsuffering (Rom. 2:4). God gives us several chances to get things right. This attribute of God is what should lead us to be the same way; that is, because he has been merciful to us, we should be merciful to others (Matt. 18:33).

We read in Matthew 12 that when the disciples were walking with Jesus through the grain fields on the Sabbath, they became hungry and began to pluck the heads of grain to eat. The Pharisees saw this and questioned Jesus on why they were doing an unlawful thing on this holy day. Once again, Jesus’ response pointed to their hypocrisy, because knowing that David entered into the house of God to eat the showbread, which was unlawful, the Pharisees did not find fault in him. Nor did they find fault in the priests who offered sacrifices on the Sabbath.

What the disciples did was not unlawful; however, the Pharisees desired to twist the law in order to condemn them. Jesus therefore quoted Hosea 6:6: “I desire mercy and not sacrifice.” That is, holding fast to the law is worthless if one does not show mercy toward his fellow man. James says that mercy triumphs over judgment (Jas. 2:13). Although judging with righteous judgment is essential, God also requires us to love mercy (Hosea 6:7–8):

Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, ten thousand rivers of oil? Shall I give my firstborn for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul? He has shown you, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God?

When we find ourselves in a situation in which we are required to correct a brother or teach a non-Christian, it is important that we examine ourselves first to see if we are in error. Furthermore, we need to remember that God is a forgiving God who shows mercy, and therefore we must also do the same.

[PODCAST] An Invitation to Be Holy

My first full episode is now available! I decided to discuss the significance of being set apart or called to be a saint. The main text is Romans 1:1,7, but I also explored other passages from the Epistles, the Gospels, and the Mosaic Law.

The episode is available at the following links:

Please feel free to leave comments, feedback, and suggestions for future episodes.

I hope you enjoy!

Introduction to New Podcast

Hello everyone!

I’ve decided to start a podcast to complement this blog. I’m going to use it to explore a little further some of the topics I write about. You can access the introduction episode by clicking the link below:

“Welcome to my podcast!” from Syd’s Notebook on Anchor

I hope you enjoy!

Please feel free to contact me at sydsnotebook@gmail.com, or you can find me on Twitter and Instagram as @sydsnotebook.

 

Commentary: Romans 2:1–16

This post is part of a series of essays based on my study of Paul’s epistle to the Romans. They are simply drafts and not intended to be well-polished essays. I would appreciate any constructive feedback.


Romans 2:1–16

Click here to read the passage.

After dealing with the sinfulness of the Gentiles, Paul then turns to the ones who judge—the Jews (See v. 17). They were hypocritical in that they judged the Gentiles for their sins, but yet they too were just as sinful (Matt. 7:1–5). They believed that they would not be held accountable for their actions because of their heritage and status of being God’s people. They took for granted the riches of God: goodness, forbearance, and longsuffering. Instead of living a life of repentance because of how good God was towards them, they continued to practice sin. Many today do not realize that the goodness of God is manifested in that he is patient with us—waiting for us to change our lives before he returns. He does not wish that anyone perish (2 Pet. 3:9,15), and therefore, he is waiting for all to repent (Rev. 2:21).

The Jews had hardened their hearts like the Gentiles, and they were storing up wrath for themselves. Their punishment would be justifiable because God had been merciful and gracious towards them. He renders to us according to the things we have done (Job 34:11; Ps. 62:12; Matt. 16:27). If we do good by seeking for glory, honor, and immortality, we will receive eternal life. If we are self-seeking and do not obey the truth, we will receive death. This warning is for everyone—Jews and Gentiles—because God shows no partiality.

He justifies those who do the law, not those who just hear it (Jas. 1:22,25). Although the Gentiles were not under the Law of Moses, they still fulfilled some of the requirements of the law instinctively, because these requirements were written on their hearts (See Genesis 12:14–20). Their conscience told them what was right and wrong according to God’s moral standard. Verses 12–15 indicate that Gentiles were able to sin, because there was a law that governed their thoughts and actions. We learn from the Scriptures that where there is a law, there is sin. However, where there is not a law, sin is not imputed (Rom. 5:13). Since all are under God’s law, Christ will judge all according to that law, which is the gospel.

False Knowledge

We are living in a time in which people are so smart that their intelligence has become foolishness. Even in so-called Christendom, some have begun to deny basic truths that have been established since ancient times and have been laid out clearly in the Scriptures. For example, in the name of their earthly agenda, people deny the biblical conceptualization of the body-soul distinction and the after-life. If they cannot completely negate certain doctrines, they will twist God’s word around to create foreign theologies and then claim that there are multiple truths. They also deceive others in efforts to achieve their ultimate goal of fame and personal gain. This behavior is not new. Paul warned Timothy about times like these. He told him, “Guard what was committed to your trust, avoiding the profane and idle babblings and contradictions of what is falsely called knowledge” (1 Tim. 6:20). The Scriptures teach that the work of the deceivers and the deceived will finally be made manifest, and as God’s people, we must resist their deception by continuing in the doctrine of Christ.

In 2 Timothy 3:1–9, Paul describes how people would be during the times of apostasy. He says that they would love themselves and their money (vv. 1–2). They would be blasphemers and would disobey their parents (v. 2). They would also be ungrateful, unholy, unloving, and unforgiving (vv. 2–3). Paul also describes them as being slanderers and despisers of good without self-control (v. 3). The apostates would love pleasure instead of loving God (v. 4). They would appear to be pious, professing to know God, but denying him in their works by being detestable, disobedient, and unfit for doing good works (v. 5; Titus 1:16). Furthermore, Paul points out that the people whom apostates deceive would be sinful and gullible, easily led astray by their passions—constantly seeking knowledge but never learning truth (vv. 6–7).

Notice in verse 8 the reference to the sorcerers Jannes and Jambres during the time of the Exodus. When Moses demanded the liberation of the Israelites, Aaron performed miracles to confirm their authority received from God (Exod. 7:1–7). Pharaoh, in response, appointed the sorcerers to perform similar miracles (Exod. 7:11–12). Although they were successful at replicating some (cf. Exod. 8:18), Aaron’s works always overcame the deception of the magicians’ enchantments (Exod. 9:11). The same will happen to the deceivers of our times. We should find comfort in that they will not be able to continue any further with their lies and manipulation of the truth and that their evil works eventually will be reveal (2 Tim. 3:9). Until then we must continue to devote ourselves to the truth of God’s word, knowing that, not some, but the entirety of his word is inspired and is necessary for teaching, persuading, correcting, and training in righteousness (2 Tim. 3:15–17).

Our Duty as Bondservants of Christ

The word “bondservant”—also translated as “slave”—comes from the Greek word doulos (Strong’s Greek Concordance #1401) and is used in the Bible in its literal sense to refer to a person in a position of servitude (1 Cor. 7:21). The duty of a bondservant is to be obedient and pleasing in all things to his master, and to be sincere and honest in his work (Eph. 6:5; Col. 4:22; 1 Tim. 6:1; Titus 2:9). The term is also used in the Scriptures metaphorically. For example, in 1 Corinthians 7:22, we read that the one who is called being a freedman becomes Christ’s slave; that is, he is a spiritual servant. Paul opens up his epistle to the Romans with this concept of spiritual enslavement that, as Christians, we must seek to emulate in our lives if we want to be obedient and pleasing to our master.

In his greeting to the Christians in Rome, Paul refers to himself as a bondservant of Jesus Christ (Rom. 1:1; See also Gal. 1:10, Phil. 1:1 and Titus 1:1). He had given up everything for Christ’s sake. He had studied under a highly honored teacher of the law (Acts 5:34; Acts 22:3). He considered himself a Hebrew of the Hebrews and a Pharisee of the Pharisees, being zealous and righteous according to his religion and heritage. However, he counted all as loss in order to serve Christ (Phil. 3:5–7). We see in Luke’s record that Christ had a plan for Paul (Acts 9:15–16):

“But the Lord said to him, ‘Go, for he is a chosen vessel of Mine to bear My name before Gentiles, kings, and the children of Israel. For I will show him how many things he must suffer for My name’s sake.’”

The Lord set Paul apart to carry out a special task, and Paul obeyed him as a servant would obey his master. The task involved being an apostle of Christ and preaching obedience to the gospel among the Gentiles (vv. 1 & 5). The Scriptures teach us that Paul fulfilled the requirements for his work as an apostle by being an eyewitness to the resurrection of Christ (1 Cor. 9:1, 15:3–10) and being chosen (Acts 9:15). We also learn that, after his conversion, Paul was zealous for proclaiming the word. He says in verses 14–16,

“I am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to wise and to unwise. So, as much as is in me, I am ready to preach the gospel to you who are in Rome also. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek.”

This description of Paul as a bondservant also extends to all Christians. We too have to consider ourselves slaves to Christ.

Notice that Paul says in verse 6 that the Romans were the called of Christ. God calls all people by his gospel. In Romans 10, Paul explains that it is the word that produces faith, and that faith is what enables us to respond to the gospel in order to be saved (Rom. 10:8–17). He writes in chapter 1 that the gospel of Christ is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes (Rom. 1:16). The Romans were not called only to obey the truth, but also to be saints, set apart by God (Rom. 1:7).

We as Christians have become God’s special people, and we have a special task that we must carry out as Christ’s bondservants, having been bought with a price (1 Cor. 7:23). Our duty is to proclaim the praises of him who called us out of darkness into his marvelous light (1 Peter 2:9). If we truly want to live as bondservants of Christ, we must be dedicated to the work of glorifying God and spreading the word about the forgiveness of sins through our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. We cannot be ashamed of the gospel, because without it, men cannot receive the free gift of salvation. Therefore, it is incumbent upon us to give up our will to carry out the will of God in the best way we can.

Commentary: Romans 1:18–31

This post is part of a series of essays based on my study of Paul’s epistle to the Romans. They are simply drafts and not intended to be well-polished essays. I would appreciate any constructive feedback.


Romans 1:18–31

Click here to read the passage.

In this section of chapter 1, Paul is writing about the sinfulness of Gentiles. Although they did not have the Mosaic Law like the Jews, they were still under God’s moral law, and thus, were held accountable for their sins. God stands opposed to sin; he despises all ungodliness and unrighteousness (Eph. 5:6; Col. 3:6). However, his anger is not sudden, but rather, is brooding and welling up. It is revealed (is being revealed and will be revealed) from heaven on the day of judgment (Rom. 2:5). God will punish all those who are not in Christ and are living in sin.

The Gentiles’ unrighteousness was a sign of their suppressing the truth and existence of God. They knew that God existed because he made himself manifest to them in the things they perceived. The creation of the world, and those things found in it, declare the existence of God (Acts 14:17; Ps. 19:1–6). Therefore, the Gentiles were without excuse; they were still responsible for their sins. Although they invented all types of philosophies and were interested in knowledge (Acts 17:21), they became more foolish, and their hearts were hardened (Eph. 4:17–18), which is the result of rejecting God. Instead of glorifying God and giving him thanks, they chose to practice idolatry, worshiping images that resembled men and animals. The same situation is true today. Many people reject God and depend on their own philosophies. They worship men and material things and are completely blind to the truth. However, they will still be held accountable on the Day of Judgment.

Although God gave the Gentiles up to their uncleanness (i.e., impurity), he was not the cause of their hardening. They were the ones who suppressed the truth, exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature instead of the Creator. Paul talks about their hardening also in Ephesians 4:18–19, where he says that the Gentiles became callous and gave themselves up to sensuality and every kind of impurity; therefore, there were alienated from God. This hardening was their own doing, and God separated himself from them because they did not turn to him. Paul fleshes this out further from verses 26–31 by enumerating all the sins they practiced. Not only those who practiced these things were deserving of death (6:21), but also those who approved of the ones who practiced them.

Make Disciples by Baptizing Them

16 Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, to the mountain which Jesus had appointed for them. 17 When they saw Him, they worshiped Him; but some doubted. 18 And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,20 teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.” Amen.

-Matthew 28:16–20

Matthew records in his gospel the final moments Jesus spent with his disciples, particularly with the eleven. Before ascending into heaven, Jesus announced to them what we know as the great commission. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, a commission is a command to perform prescribed acts. The word implies that someone receives the authority to carry out a duty on behalf of or in place of another. What we observe in Matthew 28:16–20 is exactly that type of situation. Jesus told the disciples, “All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth” (v. 18). Notice here that Jesus has the authority, which he received from someone else. Paul tells us in Ephesians 1:19–23 that God the Father gave Jesus the Son dominion over everything:

19 and what is the exceeding greatness of His power toward us who believe, according to the working of His mighty power 20 which He worked in Christ when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places, 21 far above all principality and power and might and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in that which is to come. 22 And He put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church, 23 which is His body, the fullness of Him who fills all in all.

While Jesus was on this earth, he was carrying out a commission on behalf of the Father to bear witness of the true Light (John 1:1–18). He was obedient to the will of the Father (Heb. 5:8). Matthew now records the moment in which Jesus handed this authority over to the disciples (cf. Matt. 5:13–16) by giving them a command that involves baptism. This passage of Scriptures, therefore, highlights the essentiality of baptism in God’s plan of salvation.

The Command

Jesus told them, “Go and make disciples of all nations” (v. 19). Although this English translation expresses the command in the phrases “go” and “make disciples”, the Greek text expresses the command only in “make disciples.” The Young’s Literal Translation provides a better version of the original:

19 having gone, then, disciple all the nations, baptizing them — to the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit,

Notice that the verb “go” is rendered as a participle that indicates a continuous action, and the imperative is to disciple—the main action of the sentence. That is, Jesus was telling the disciples that, as they went about, they had to convert the people they encountered, and he gave them specific ways of how to do so. Attached to the main action are two phrases (vv. 19–20): “baptizing them” and “teaching them to observe all things.” We learn from these verses that conversion involves both baptism and doctrine. Here we will focus on baptism.

Baptized into His Possession

First, baptism is in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. “In the name of” comes from the Greek construction εἰς τὸ ὄνομα (eis to onoma), which means “into the possession of” (Bauer et al. 1979). Therefore, we understand that we are baptized into the possession of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Upon baptism, we become part of God’s chosen generation, royal priesthood, holy nation, and his own special people—we are of God (1 Pet. 2:9–10; cf. 1 Cor. 1:12–13; Acts 20:28).

Baptism Initiates New Life

Also notice in verses 19–20 that baptism comes before teaching. That is, baptism is the initiation of a new life in Christ (Rom. 6:4–7). It is only after we begin this new life that we can observe all Christ’s teachings by reading, studying, and applying the word of God. We cannot expect to benefit from his teachings if we have not first come into a covenant relationship with God through baptism.

Conclusion

We therefore can take three points from Matthew 28:16­–20 concerning the essentiality of baptism. First, baptism is a command authorized by Jesus Christ, and we must submit to this command, having faith that God has the power to save those who obey him (Col. 2:12; Heb. 5:9). Second, in baptism we become the property of God because it puts us in contact with Christ’s blood—the blood with which he purchased the church (Acts 20:28; Eph. 1:14). Lastly, baptism precedes doctrine; that is, it marks the beginning of our new Christian life. Once we are in Christ, God grants us the right to benefit from the spiritual blessings found in his word (Eph. 1:3ff).

Reference:

Bauer, W., Arndt, W. F., Gingrich, F. W., and Danker F., (1979). A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Baptism Now Saves You

18 For Christ also suffered once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit, 19 in which he went and proclaimed to the spirits in prison, 20 because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water. 21 Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 22 who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, with angels, authorities, and powers having been subjected to him.

-1 Peter 3:18–22

Those who oppose the idea of salvation occurring at the occasion of water baptism tend to define inaccurately the doctrine of baptismal regeneration. They claim that it is the false belief that one must be immersed in water to be saved1, 2, 3:

However, baptismal regeneration is accurately defined as the teaching that water baptism in and of itself saves a person. This doctrine—along with the false teaching of original sin—has led certain denominations to practice infant baptism. Along with affirming the essentiality of baptism, Cyprian of Carthage, a Catholic bishop, taught that infants should be baptized as soon as they were born because he believed that they were all born guilty of Adam’s sin4, 5:

Many people use 1 Peter 3:21 to negate baptismal regeneration. However, in their attempt to refute this false doctrine, they end up throwing out the baby with the bathwater (no pun intended).

When Peter mentions baptism in verse 21, he discusses it in relation to the events that occurred during the days of Noah (v. 20). Peter says, “because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water. Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.” That is, baptism corresponds to the salvation of Noah and his family through water. When we want to better understand the Scriptures, we can use an interpretative tool called biblical typology, which involves the study of New Testament examples foreshadowed by significant events and characters in the Old Testament. For example, Paul in his letter to the Romans speaks of the fall of Adam being typical of, or pointing to, the redemptive work of Christ (Rom. 5:14–15)6:

14 Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come. 15 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many.

Notice in verse 14, Paul uses the word “type”, which is translated from the Greek word túpos. The type that appears in the Old Testament—in this case, Adam—corresponds to Christ, who is the “antitype”. Peter uses this same terminology in speaking of baptism. The word “correspond” in 1 Peter 3:21 is derived from antítupos (antitype), which is sometimes translated as “like figure”:

21 There is also an antitype which now saves us—baptism (not the removal of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God), through the resurrection of Jesus Christ (NKJV).

21 The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ (KJV).

Peter is revealing a correspondence between the flood and baptism, the former being the type, and the latter, the antitype. His discussion therefore teaches us that baptism saves us in the same way that the diluvial waters saved Noah and his family while they were in the ark (See Genesis 6).

Peter however makes a very important caveat, which appears to indicate a common thought that was probably held at the time of his writing his letter. Notice what he says in verse 21: “not as a removal of dirt from the body.” Many people use this phrase in particular to contest baptismal regeneration—and the phrase does indeed speak against it (when defined accurately). However, the phrase does not in any way refute the essentiality of baptism for salvation. What Peter expresses here is that baptism is not a simple bath—it does not save you in and of itself. It should not be taken as a simple ritual without any thought behind it, which is why infants have no need to be baptized, as they do not have the ability to reason about such matters. Baptism requires first that we believe that Jesus is the Christ, and additionally, that we repent of past sins. We have to recognize that we need a savior. Peter speaks to this idea in the rest of verse 21: “[it is] an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.” Baptism saves in that we are calling out to God to remove our sins and give us a clear conscience (cf. Acts 22:16). Submitting to baptism shows that we trust that God will perform his powerful work of salvation on us through the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ (Col. 2:12; cf. Acts 2:38).

16 And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized and wash away your sins, calling on his name.’

12 having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the powerful working of God, who raised him from the dead.

38 And Peter said to them, “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

How can we make an appeal to God for a good conscience without baptism if the Scriptures teach us that the appeal is made in this way? How can we be saved without baptism if Peter clearly states that baptism saves? Many claim to have faith, but when they are called by the Scriptures to do something, they resist by claiming that we do not have to work for our salvation. Faith, however, comes by hearing the word of God (Rom. 10:17), and the word of God has told us to be baptized for the forgiveness of our sins (Acts 2:38); therefore, we must heed his word if forgiveness is what we truly want.

Footnotes

1. The ‘Baptismal Regeneration’ Heresy Refuted, by David J. Stewart
2. Baptism and 1 Pet. 3:21, by Matt Slick
3. Does Baptism Save You?, by Jeremiah Johnson
4. Epistle 58, by Cyprian of Carthage
5. The Story of Christian Theology: Twenty Centuries of Tradition & Reform, by Roger E. Olson
6. Entry for ‘Type’. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1915. General Editor James Orr, M.A., D.D