Make Disciples by Baptizing Them

16 Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, to the mountain which Jesus had appointed for them. 17 When they saw Him, they worshiped Him; but some doubted. 18 And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,20 teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.” Amen.

-Matthew 28:16–20

Matthew records in his gospel the final moments Jesus spent with his disciples, particularly with the eleven. Before ascending into heaven, Jesus announced to them what we know as the great commission. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, a commission is a command to perform prescribed acts. The word implies that someone receives the authority to carry out a duty on behalf of or in place of another. What we observe in Matthew 28:16–20 is exactly that type of situation. Jesus told the disciples, “All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth” (v. 18). Notice here that Jesus has the authority, which he received from someone else. Paul tells us in Ephesians 1:19–23 that God the Father gave Jesus the Son dominion over everything:

19 and what is the exceeding greatness of His power toward us who believe, according to the working of His mighty power 20 which He worked in Christ when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places, 21 far above all principality and power and might and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in that which is to come. 22 And He put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church, 23 which is His body, the fullness of Him who fills all in all.

While Jesus was on this earth, he was carrying out a commission on behalf of the Father to bear witness of the true Light (John 1:1–18). He was obedient to the will of the Father (Heb. 5:8). Matthew now records the moment in which Jesus handed this authority over to the disciples (cf. Matt. 5:13–16) by giving them a command that involves baptism. This passage of Scriptures, therefore, highlights the essentiality of baptism in God’s plan of salvation.

The Command

Jesus told them, “Go and make disciples of all nations” (v. 19). Although this English translation expresses the command in the phrases “go” and “make disciples”, the Greek text expresses the command only in “make disciples.” The Young’s Literal Translation provides a better version of the original:

19 having gone, then, disciple all the nations, baptizing them — to the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit,

Notice that the verb “go” is rendered as a participle that indicates a continuous action, and the imperative is to disciple—the main action of the sentence. That is, Jesus was telling the disciples that, as they went about, they had to convert the people they encountered, and he gave them specific ways of how to do so. Attached to the main action are two phrases (vv. 19–20): “baptizing them” and “teaching them to observe all things.” We learn from these verses that conversion involves both baptism and doctrine. Here we will focus on baptism.

Baptized into His Possession

First, baptism is in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. “In the name of” comes from the Greek construction εἰς τὸ ὄνομα (eis to onoma), which means “into the possession of” (Bauer et al. 1979). Therefore, we understand that we are baptized into the possession of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Upon baptism, we become part of God’s chosen generation, royal priesthood, holy nation, and his own special people—we are of God (1 Pet. 2:9–10; cf. 1 Cor. 1:12–13; Acts 20:28).

Baptism Initiates New Life

Also notice in verses 19–20 that baptism comes before teaching. That is, baptism is the initiation of a new life in Christ (Rom. 6:4–7). It is only after we begin this new life that we can observe all Christ’s teachings by reading, studying, and applying the word of God. We cannot expect to benefit from his teachings if we have not first come into a covenant relationship with God through baptism.

Conclusion

We therefore can take three points from Matthew 28:16­–20 concerning the essentiality of baptism. First, baptism is a command authorized by Jesus Christ, and we must submit to this command, having faith that God has the power to save those who obey him (Col. 2:12; Heb. 5:9). Second, in baptism we become the property of God because it puts us in contact with Christ’s blood—the blood with which he purchased the church (Acts 20:28; Eph. 1:14). Lastly, baptism precedes doctrine; that is, it marks the beginning of our new Christian life. Once we are in Christ, God grants us the right to benefit from the spiritual blessings found in his word (Eph. 1:3ff).

Reference:

Bauer, W., Arndt, W. F., Gingrich, F. W., and Danker F., (1979). A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Baptism Now Saves You

18 For Christ also suffered once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit, 19 in which he went and proclaimed to the spirits in prison, 20 because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water. 21 Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 22 who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, with angels, authorities, and powers having been subjected to him.

-1 Peter 3:18–22

Those who oppose the idea of salvation occurring at the occasion of water baptism tend to define inaccurately the doctrine of baptismal regeneration. They claim that it is the false belief that one must be immersed in water to be saved1, 2, 3:

However, baptismal regeneration is accurately defined as the teaching that water baptism in and of itself saves a person. This doctrine—along with the false teaching of original sin—has led certain denominations to practice infant baptism. Along with affirming the essentiality of baptism, Cyprian of Carthage, a Catholic bishop, taught that infants should be baptized as soon as they were born because he believed that they were all born guilty of Adam’s sin4, 5:

Many people use 1 Peter 3:21 to negate baptismal regeneration. However, in their attempt to refute this false doctrine, they end up throwing out the baby with the bathwater (no pun intended).

When Peter mentions baptism in verse 21, he discusses it in relation to the events that occurred during the days of Noah (v. 20). Peter says, “because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water. Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.” That is, baptism corresponds to the salvation of Noah and his family through water. When we want to better understand the Scriptures, we can use an interpretative tool called biblical typology, which involves the study of New Testament examples foreshadowed by significant events and characters in the Old Testament. For example, Paul in his letter to the Romans speaks of the fall of Adam being typical of, or pointing to, the redemptive work of Christ (Rom. 5:14–15)6:

14 Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come. 15 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many.

Notice in verse 14, Paul uses the word “type”, which is translated from the Greek word túpos. The type that appears in the Old Testament—in this case, Adam—corresponds to Christ, who is the “antitype”. Peter uses this same terminology in speaking of baptism. The word “correspond” in 1 Peter 3:21 is derived from antítupos (antitype), which is sometimes translated as “like figure”:

21 There is also an antitype which now saves us—baptism (not the removal of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God), through the resurrection of Jesus Christ (NKJV).

21 The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ (KJV).

Peter is revealing a correspondence between the flood and baptism, the former being the type, and the latter, the antitype. His discussion therefore teaches us that baptism saves us in the same way that the diluvial waters saved Noah and his family while they were in the ark (See Genesis 6).

Peter however makes a very important caveat, which appears to indicate a common thought that was probably held at the time of his writing his letter. Notice what he says in verse 21: “not as a removal of dirt from the body.” Many people use this phrase in particular to contest baptismal regeneration—and the phrase does indeed speak against it (when defined accurately). However, the phrase does not in any way refute the essentiality of baptism for salvation. What Peter expresses here is that baptism is not a simple bath—it does not save you in and of itself. It should not be taken as a simple ritual without any thought behind it, which is why infants have no need to be baptized, as they do not have the ability to reason about such matters. Baptism requires first that we believe that Jesus is the Christ, and additionally, that we repent of past sins. We have to recognize that we need a savior. Peter speaks to this idea in the rest of verse 21: “[it is] an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.” Baptism saves in that we are calling out to God to remove our sins and give us a clear conscience (cf. Acts 22:16). Submitting to baptism shows that we trust that God will perform his powerful work of salvation on us through the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ (Col. 2:12; cf. Acts 2:38).

16 And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized and wash away your sins, calling on his name.’

12 having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the powerful working of God, who raised him from the dead.

38 And Peter said to them, “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

How can we make an appeal to God for a good conscience without baptism if the Scriptures teach us that the appeal is made in this way? How can we be saved without baptism if Peter clearly states that baptism saves? Many claim to have faith, but when they are called by the Scriptures to do something, they resist by claiming that we do not have to work for our salvation. Faith, however, comes by hearing the word of God (Rom. 10:17), and the word of God has told us to be baptized for the forgiveness of our sins (Acts 2:38); therefore, we must heed his word if forgiveness is what we truly want.

Footnotes

1. The ‘Baptismal Regeneration’ Heresy Refuted, by David J. Stewart
2. Baptism and 1 Pet. 3:21, by Matt Slick
3. Does Baptism Save You?, by Jeremiah Johnson
4. Epistle 58, by Cyprian of Carthage
5. The Story of Christian Theology: Twenty Centuries of Tradition & Reform, by Roger E. Olson
6. Entry for ‘Type’. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1915. General Editor James Orr, M.A., D.D

Faith in the Working of God in Baptism

12 buried with Him in baptism, in which you also were raised with Him through faith in the working of God
-Colossians 2:12

Baptism is the occasion in which God performs his divine work. Paul mentions this fact in his letter to the church in Colossae. In Chapter 2, he warns them of being deceived by those teaching philosophies that are found in man-made traditions and worldly requirements and that are not according to the doctrine of Christ (v. 8). Christians—being complete in Christ—have no need for worldly doctrines because Christ has power over all (vv. 9–10). Paul then goes on to talk about the circumcision that they experienced. He mentions three characteristics of this circumcision. First, it is made without hands (v. 11); it is not the physical circumcision, which was required by the Mosaic law, but rather the circumcision of Christ. Second, it puts off the body of the sins of the flesh (v. 11); that is, it washes away sins. Third, and very important, it involves a burial with Christ in baptism (v. 12; cf. Rom. 6:4). These characteristics highlight the agent of our salvation—God.

Notice in verses 12–14 that Paul lays out the operation that God performed on the Colossians when they were baptized. He says that God raised them from the dead, bringing them to life again just as he did with Christ (v. 12). He forgave them of their sins by wiping away all the requirements that were against them according to the law, and he took the law out of the way through Christ’s death on the cross (vv. 13–14). By doing this, he made peace among men, uniting them in one body, and he reconciled the body to himself (Eph. 2:15–16).

All those who want to have this operation must be baptized, as this act is the moment in which God will perform his work of forgiving all our past sins. Furthermore, we must have faith in this operation. We have to trust that God will indeed do what he promises to do when we submit to his command to be baptized. Submitting to baptism is not a reason to boast (Eph. 2:8–8) since we do not even deserve to have the operation. God, according to his everlasting grace and mercy, invites us so that he can circumcise the foreskin of our heart (Deut. 10:6, 30:6; Phil 3:3).

The Sovereignty of God and the Will of Man #3

Predestination and Salvation

The gospel of Christ is the power of God to salvation to those who believe (Rom. 1:16). If we do not study God’s word to come to an understanding of it, we cannot believe the gospel (cf. Rom. 10:17), and therefore, there is no salvation (2 Tim. 3:15). That is why it is important to rightly divide the Scriptures (2 Tim. 2:15). When studying God’s word, we must understand passages in terms of the immediate context, which are the verses before and after, the context of the chapter, the context of the book, and the overall context of the Bible. Additionally, we need to know the meaning of words and how they are used in the Scriptures. In this series of posts, I am dealing with the sovereignty of God and the will of man as they relate to God’s plan of salvation. I have discussed the importance of not allowing a particular interpretation of the Scriptures to contradict the basic principles of God’s character and man’s nature. The Calvinist view of concepts such as predestination and election is in opposition to the righteousness of God and the free will of man. It conflicts with the Scriptures due to an incorrect interpretation. One of the misinterpreted passages is Romans 9:20-24. These verses have been used to prove that certain individuals have been predestined to salvation, and others have been predestined to condemnation. The issue is that this belief is due to either not analyzing the verses within their context or completely misunderstanding the context. In this post, I will discuss Romans 9:20-24 and resolve the contradictions presented by Calvinist theology.

As I mentioned, it is important to understand the meaning of words used in the context of the Scriptures. The verb “to predestine” is used in several verses of the Bible (see Acts 4:28; Rom. 8:29-30; 1 Cor. 2:7; Eph. 1:5,11), but contextually, it has nothing to do with the Calvinist view of predestination. According to Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, it is a translation of the word proorizó, which is the combination of pró “before” and horízō “to establish boundaries”. That is, it means “to limit in advance” or “to determine beforehand”. Some synonyms found in different Bible translations are “to predetermine” or “to foreordain”. We could take 1 Corinthians 2:7 in three Bible translations as an example of the use of proorizó by Paul in discussing the plan of salvation that was determined by God before the beginning of time. These translations illustrate a clear meaning of the word – to determine before. No other definition can be derived.

King James Version: “But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory”

New American Standard Bible: “but we speak God’s wisdom in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God predestined before the ages to our glory”

English Standard Version: “But we impart a secret and hidden wisdom of God, which God decreed before the ages for our glory”.

The letter that Paul wrote to the Romans is rich with doctrinal topics that are outside the scope of this essay. However, it is important to keep in mind that one of the main issues that the early church dealt with was the fact that Jewish Christians were binding the Law of Moses on newly converted Gentiles. They taught that, in order to be saved, the Gentiles had to be circumcised according to the Law of Moses (see Acts 15). Paul responds to this false teaching in his letters to the Christians in Rome and Galatia by revealing to them the great mystery of the gospel (Rom. 11:25). He explains in Romans 1 – 3 that both Jews and Gentiles were under sin (Rom 3:9), and that they could not be freed from sin by works of the Mosaic Law, particularly circumcision. The only means by which a man could be justified was through the death of Jesus Christ, which was offered by God as a gift and appropriated by man through faith (Rom. 3:21-26). Justification is attained by faith apart from works of the law because God is the God of both Jews and Gentiles (vv. 28-30). For this reason, there is no longer any condemnation for those who are in Christ (Rom. 8:1). As Paul continues his discussion, he focuses on the role of his kinsmen, the Jews, in the salvation of the Gentiles (Rom. 9:1-5 ESV):

1I am speaking the truth in Christ—I am not lying; my conscience bears me witness in the Holy Spirit— that I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh. They are Israelites, and to them belong the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises. To them belong the patriarchs, and from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ, who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen.

The Jews had rejected Christ and demanded his crucifixion (cf. John 19:6). Although Paul felt great sorrow for his race, the rejection of Christ and of the gospel by the Jews was part of God’s plan, which was spoken forth by the Prophets (cf. Isa. 53). God knew that the Jews would not accept the good news of Jesus Christ, and he used that rejection to offer salvation to the Gentiles (Isa. 56:8; cf. Jn. 10:16). The book of Acts reveals the fulfillment of God’s promise in the salvation of several Gentiles, such as Cornelius in chapters 10 and 11 and Lydia and the Philippian jailor in chapter 16, just to name a few. Paul then says in Romans 9:20-241:

20 But who are you, O man, to answer back to God? Will what is molded say to its molder, “Why have you made me like this?” 21 Has the potter no right over the clay, to make out of the same lump one vessel for honorable use and another for dishonorable use? 22 What if God, desiring to show his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction, 23 in order to make known the riches of his glory for vessels of mercy, which he has prepared beforehand for glory—24 even us whom he has called, not from the Jews only but also from the Gentiles?

The Calvinists use this passage to prove their view of predestination. Based on verse 22, they claim that God has prepared certain people for destruction and others for mercy, which is false according to the context. This passage refers to the fact that God used the rejection of the Jews in order to save the Gentiles. Verse 22 says that God “endured with much patience”. That is, he abstained from punishing the Jews (cf. Rom. 3:25), who were steeped in sin. Paul referred to them as “vessels of wrath prepared for destruction”. The word “prepared” is used in the original Greek text as a verb that is expressed with the meaning of doing something to oneself (Thayer’s Greek Lexicon). Therefore, we understand verse 22 to mean that the Jews prepared themselves for destruction by hardening their own hearts. They stored up wrath for themselves (Rom. 2:5) by not submitting to the righteousness of God (Rom. 10:1-4). In doing this, they served as God’s vessels in order to make known the riches of his glory for the vessels of mercy, which were not only the Gentiles but also the Jews who believed. Reading chapters 10 and 11 helps to further comprehend God’s plan.

The Jews were God’s chosen people. He always intended to save them, and he secured that promise by making covenants with their forefathers (e.g., Gen. 6:18, 15:18). However, he incited jealousy in them by turning to other nations, and he was justified in doing so because Israel was a disobedient people (Rom. 10:18-21). Paul then explains that, although they stumbled, it was not so that they would fall. That is, God did not predestine them to be completely destroyed or lost. These same vessels of wrath would still have the opportunity to be saved (Rom. 11:11-15):

11 So I ask, did they stumble in order that they might fall? By no means! Rather, through their trespass salvation has come to the Gentiles, so as to make Israel jealous. 12 Now if their trespass means riches for the world, and if their failure means riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their full inclusion mean!

13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry 14 in order somehow to make my fellow Jews jealous, and thus save some of them. 15 For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead?

It is clear in this text that Israel’s trespass brought salvation to the Gentiles, which in turn, would make Israel jealous in order that they also would seek salvation. In this way, God grants salvation to both Jews and Gentiles, that is, the whole world (11:25):

25 Lest you be wise in your own sight, I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers: a partial hardening has come upon Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And in this way all Israel will be saved…

God was loyal to the covenant that he made with Israel’s forefathers (11:28-29): “28 As regards the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But as regards election, they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers. 29 For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable.” These verses teach us that God keeps his promise. He has not revoked the gift of salvation. All you need to do is accept it by being obedient (Rom. 16:26).

These chapters most certainly reveal the everlasting wisdom, love, and mercy of God (Rom. 11:30-36). They also show that he does not show partiality towards men and would never predestine specific individuals to be saved or lost. What he predestined, or determined beforehand, was a plan. His plan involves an election, which I will discuss in the fourth part of this series. I will argue that God’s election as taught in the Bible is different from the type of election taught in Calvinist theology.

Footnotes

1. Since it deals with election, Romans 9:6-19 will be discussed further in part 4 of this series. Predestination and election are closely related.

The Sovereignty of God and the Will of Man #2

The Dilemmas and Contradictions of Calvinism

In this post, I continue to explore the role that man plays in God’s plan of salvation. Particularly, I will focus on the doctrine of Calvinism in order to highlight the dilemmas and contradictions that emerge in its interpretation of predestination and election. I do not intend to review fully this theology, as it would require a much longer essay. However, I will present some points that give us an idea of its falsity. As I mentioned in my first post, there are five main points that summarize God’s plan of salvation within the Calvinistic doctrine, which are represented by the mnemonic device TULIP: T- Total Hereditary Depravity, U- Unconditional Election, L- Limited Atonement, I- Irresistible Grace, and P- Perseverance of the Saints. These points are so intimately related that if you can see the fallacy in one or two of them, the whole system falls. Therefore, I will discuss specifically the concepts of predestination and election.

The details of Calvinist theology are laid out in the Westminster Confession of Faith. The following is stated concerning predestination and election:

“By the decree of God, for the manifestation of His glory, some men and angels are predestinated unto everlasting life; and others foreordained to everlasting death”.

“These angels and men, thus predestinated, and foreordained, are particularly and unchangeably designed, and their number so certain and definite, that it cannot be either increased or diminished”.

Calvinism teaches that God, in his sovereign counsel, determined before the foundation of the world certain individuals to be saved and others to be lost. That is, each person in this world and those to be born have been predestined for either salvation or condemnation, and there is nothing that can be done to change it because their design and God’s decision are immutable. God’s election of the saved is independent of any works that man could do, and therefore, it is unconditional (Chap. III, Secs. III-IV). Calvinism also teaches that, if you are elected for eternal life, God personally calls you in such a way that you are irresistibly drawn to Christ (Chap. X, Sec. I). Once you have been called according to God’s grace, it is impossible to willfully fall away. The Westminster Confession of Faith states, “[t]his perseverance of the saints depends not upon their own free will, but upon the immutability of the decree of election” (Chap. XVII, Sec. II). Although this summary is not exhaustive, the basic ideas of this theology present a dilemma because it contradicts basic truths concerning the righteousness of God and the free will of man. Calvinists claim to accept these truths; however, their teachings on these matters are conflictive and are based on an incorrect interpretation of the Scriptures. Note also that the implication of this doctrine is that once you are saved, you can never fall from grace, which does not align with what we observe in the Bible as it relates to the practice of sin.

One of the passages cited within Calvinism to support predestination is Romans 9:20-24:

20 But who are you, O man, to answer back to God? Will what is molded say to its molder, “Why have you made me like this?” 21 Has the potter no right over the clay, to make out of the same lump one vessel for honorable use and another for dishonorable use? 22 What if God, desiring to show his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction, 23 in order to make known the riches of his glory for vessels of mercy, which he has prepared beforehand for glory— 24 even us whom he has called, not from the Jews only but also from the Gentiles?

When these verses are taken out of context, and we do not consider the author’s original intent, they would indeed lead us to believe that God has predestined specific individuals to be saved or lost. However, this interpretation presents a serious conflict with verses concerning the righteousness of God (See Post #1). Even in the same chapter of the above passage, Paul asked the question, “[w]hat shall we say then? Is the unrighteousness with God?” (Rom. 9:14). His answer was clear, “certainly not!”

Calvinists support their interpretation of election with 1 Peter 1:2, 2:9 and Ephesians 2:8-10:

elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace be multiplied (New King James Version)

But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light. (ESV)

For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast. 10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them. (ESV)

These verses also have been taken out of their context, which has distorted the true message of the author’s writing. This abuse of the Scriptures lends to misunderstandings and false teachings. The idea that God elected certain individuals to be saved and others to be lost and that those who are saved cannot at any time fall from grace does not align with the word of God. If God’s decrees are unchangeable, and he has decreed that some will be saved and others will be lost, then we have to conclude the following: 1) God creates evil people who are designed this way from birth, 2) man does not have free will in making a decision to do good or evil, 3) even if a person wanted to be saved and actually lived a Christian life, it would be impossible because God has already decided that they would be lost, and 4) there is no way of knowing that you are saved or lost.

The Calvinistic view of salvation does not, in fact, teach anyone how to be saved. This doctrine contradicts fundamental principles concerning the Creator and his creation. It compromises the integrity of God, takes away our free will, and does not give us any assurance of salvation. The Scriptures teach that we should be confident in the fact that we are saved and are to have assurance in the faith (Col. 2:2; Heb. 6:11, 10:22, 11:1; 1 Tim. 3:13). The only way to have that assurance is to trust God’s plan and to choose to submit to whatever his plan entails; that is, we must be obedient just like Christ was (Rom. 16:26; Phil 2:8). This is not to say that we have the opportunity to boast because even when we are obedient, we continue to be unprofitable servants; we have only done what was our duty (Luke 17:10).

In my third post, I will attempt to resolve the contradictions that emerge in the Calvinist doctrine by defining predestination according to the Scriptures and by correctly interpreting Romans 9:20-24. We will see that, although God’s plan of salvation does involve predestination, it is not the type that is taught in Calvinism. The passage in Romans does not demonstrate that specific individuals are headed towards salvation or condemnation independent of their own free will and by an immutable decree made by God.